## CS3452 THEORY OF COMPUTATION SYLLABUS

**CS3452 THEORY OF COMPUTATION L T P C 3 0 0 3COURSE OBJECTIVES:**

• To understand foundations of computation including automata theory

• To construct models of regular expressions and languages.

• To design context free grammar and push down automata

• To understand Turing machines and their capability

• To understand Undecidability and NP class problems

**UNIT I AUTOMATA AND REGULAR EXPRESSIONS 9**

Need for automata theory – Introduction to formal proof – Finite Automata (FA) – Deterministic Finite Automata (DFA) – Non-deterministic Finite Automata (NFA) – Equivalence between NFA and DFA – Finite Automata with Epsilon transitions – Equivalence of NFA and DFA- Equivalence of NFAs with and without ε-moves- Conversion of NFA into DFA – Minimization of DFAs.**UNIT II REGULAR EXPRESSIONS AND LANGUAGES 9**

Regular expression – Regular Languages- Equivalence of Finite Automata and regular expressions – Proving languages to be not regular (Pumping Lemma) – Closure properties of regular languages.**UNIT III CONTEXT FREE GRAMMAR AND PUSH DOWN AUTOMATA 9**

Types of Grammar – Chomsky‘s hierarchy of languages -Context-Free Grammar (CFG) and Languages

– Derivations and Parse trees – Ambiguity in grammars and languages – Push Down Automata (PDA): Definition – Moves – Instantaneous descriptions -Languages of pushdown automata – Equivalence of pushdown automata and CFG-CFG to PDA-PDA to CFG – Deterministic Pushdown Automata.

**UNIT IV NORMAL FORMS AND TURING MACHINES 9**

Normal forms for CFG – Simplification of CFG- Chomsky Normal Form (CNF) and Greibach Normal Form (GNF) – Pumping lemma for CFL – Closure properties of Context Free Languages –Turing Machine : Basic model – definition and representation – Instantaneous Description – Language acceptance by TM – TM as Computer of Integer functions – Programming techniques for Turing machines (subroutines).**UNIT V UNDECIDABILITY 9**

Unsolvable Problems and Computable Functions –PCP-MPCP- Recursive and recursively enumerable languages – Properties – Universal Turing machine -Tractable and Intractable problems – P and NP completeness – Kruskal’s algorithm – Travelling Salesman Problem- 3-CNF SAT problems.

**COURSE OUTCOMES:**

At the end of this course, the students will be able to:

CO1: Construct automata theory using Finite Automata

CO2: Write regular expressions for any pattern

CO3: Design context free grammar and Pushdown Automata

CO4: Design Turing machine for computational functions

CO5: Differentiate between decidable and undecidable problems

TEXT BOOKS:

TOTAL:45 PERIODS

- Hopcroft J.E., Motwani R. & Ullman J.D., “Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages and Computations”, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education, 2008.
- John C Martin , “Introduction to Languages and the Theory of Computation”, 4th Edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 2011.

REFERENCES:

- Harry R Lewis and Christos H Papadimitriou , “Elements of the Theory of Computation”, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall of India, 2015.
- Peter Linz, “An Introduction to Formal Language and Automata”, 6th Edition, Jones & Bartlett, 2016.
- K.L.P.Mishra and N.Chandrasekaran, “Theory of Computer Science: Automata Languages and Computation”, 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall of India, 2006.

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